Posts Tagged guava

* APIGENIN

How do you test a chemical or compound against cancer if the test subject (animal) does not have cancer? You give it cancer of course and there are several ways of doing this. Two that I’ve come across: Inject cancer cells into the animal, or transplant them, “xenograft”. Or, expose the subject to known carcinogenic chemicals in doses sufficient to cause a cancer. You can then test various compounds before or after administration of the toxic compound and see what happens. This was done with APIGENIN.

My initial research notes appear below, more detailed discussion of the supporting studies to come later.

-bioflavonoid found in many plants
-believed to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-estrogen properties.
-common foods with relatively high levels of APIGENIN: PARSLEY, ONIONS, APPLES, BASIL, CELERY ROOT, TEA, PEAS, ARTICHOKE, FEVERFEW, ORANGE JUICE, GRAPEFRUIT JUICE, SPINACH, RUTABAGAS, SWEET PEPPERS, CELERY HEART, CELERY, GUAVA, GARLIC,THYME, PEPPERMINT, CHAMOMILE, PERILLA, YARROW, RED WINE, TOMATO SAUCE
-levels of APIGENIN while found in a variety of plants usually are not high enough to get significant amounts on a daily basis. It is suggested that it would be reasonable to take as a supplement.
-inhibits prostate cancer growth.
-induces a process called autophagia (a kind of self destruction of cells)
-reverses the effects of a cancer inducing drug called cyclosporine
-”administering APIGENIN to mice, either before or after innoculation, inhibited the volume of prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner by as much as 50% and 53% respectively”…”exposure of prostate cancer cells in culture for as little as 48 hrs resulted in growth inhibition of up to 67%.” “since Americans consume an average of only 13mg per day of APIGENIN, or approximately three to four and one half times less than the lowest comparable dose used…increasing APIGENIN intake may be a prudent dietary strategy for protecting against prostate cancer”
-PC3 cells responded to APIGENIN in a dose dependent manner with a significant and time dependent effect
-DU 145 cells also affected by APIGENIN
-APIGENIN treatment significantly decreased the cell viability of CA-HPV-10 human prostate cancer cells.
induced apoptosis
-APIGENIN interferes with the inappropriate activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling which contributes to the development of several human malignancies…PC3 and DU145 cell lines were used.
-in vitro and in vivo studies APIGENIN suppresses insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling. Deregulation of IGF-I has been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer. DU 145 and PC3 cell lines were used.
-one study of about two dozen flavonoids and their effect on human breast cancer cells demonstrated that APIGENIN was the most effective anti-proliferative.
-a related study showed that it bound to estrogen receptor sites on cell membranes blocking the cells’ response to estrogen.
-APIGENIN RUTIN and QUERCETIN were more effective than VIT C in reducing DNA oxidative damage
-induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells more effectively than QUERCETIN and other flavonoids tested.
-in studies against thyroid cancer cell lines APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN were found to be most effective inhibitors found, same results when compared with other flavonoids against human thyroid cancer cell lines.
-colorectal cancer: APIGENIN and QUERCITIN interfered with epidermal growth factor cell stimulation.
-found in one study that APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN are more potent cancer inhibitors than GENISTEIN
-APIGENIN blocks protein kinase C, which is overexpressed in many human cancers, including, breast and prostate.
-”the mutation and oxidation of estrogens is related to the development of certain cancers. The favorable influence of APIGENIN, GENISTEIN on estrogen metabolism led researchers to speculate that these plant extracts could be used in the prevention or treatment of estrogen-related diseases.”
-sulfation is another mechanism by which cells turn malignant, APIGENIN and ELLAGIC ACID were more potent compared to QUERCETIN in interfering with this process.
-some leukemia cells generate toxic free radical by products, GENISTEIN, APIGENIN followed by DAIDZEIN were potent inhibitors and may have complemented their other anti-cancer effects.
-topical application of APIGENIN in mouse skin tumors showed inhibiting activity
-inhibits some factors in angiogenesis, or the growth of new blood vessels so vital to tumor growth.
-many types of cancer cells rely on COX-2 to propagate, APIGENIN and GENISTEIN interfere with that process
-”epidemiological studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly of the breast, prostate, digestive tract, skin and some hemotological malignancies”
-APIGENIN inhibits prostate cancer cell motility and adhesion. Mortality is more closely related to metastatic disease than to organ-confined cancers, thus anything that inhibits or reduces a cancer cell’s viability OUTSIDE of the originating tumor/site increases survival.
-able to reduce or delay prostate cancer in vivo in TRAMP mice (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate)
-APIGENIN, LUTEOLIN, MYRICETIN and RUTIN effective individually in decreasing viability of DU 145 prostate cancer cell line.

PARSLEY SAGE APPLES ONIONS FEVERFEW. The same foods come up repeatedly in my research. There are so many of them that combined can change a lifestyle or save a life. These are foods herbs and plants that have been a part of human dietary life for thousands of years. One has to ask why? Those individuals who ate the healthiest lived the longest and passed their genes on to the next generation. Are our genes more “receptive” to these phytonutrients? More so than they are to artificial chemicals and food additives that they have never come across before? What do you think?

martin

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* LYCOPENE

some interesting and controversial things about LYCOPENE. It was favored for awhile and still is by some for preventing or delaying prostate cancer, even some of the major medical forces in America still promote LYCOPENE as one of the top foods one MUST include in one’s diet. Studies though have NOT proven consistently LYCOPENE having any clear effect. This may be partly due to the use of LYCOPENE vs WHOLE TOMATO POWDER/EXTRACTS. Guess which one was more effective? Yes, there was a study done that compared both of them head to head.

GENERAL NOTES:

-An antioxidant, considered a powerful antioxidant
-a carotenoid which oddly is NOT used to make vitamin A in the body though other carotenoids are.
-people who have diets rich in tomatoes appear to have a lower risk of certain types of cancer
-one large study indicated that LYCOPENE had no effect on disease risk or the reduction of prostate cancer, based on 28,000 men.
-rats fed TOMATO POWDER had much lower risk of cancer than rats fed just LYCOPENE
-one study indicated that LYCOPENE and soy supplements prevented PSA levels from rising in some men with prostate cancer
-a study in India indicated that LYCOPENE from Guava did reduce PSA, which raises a question did they use whole fruit or a LYCOPENE extract from quava?
-study indicated that LYCOPENE can induce apoptosis in PC3 prostate cancer cell lines.
-study indicated that LYCOPENE PHYTOCOMPLEX (but NOT LYCOPENE) is able to trigger apoptosis and improve the effects of photodynamic therapy in human leukemia cells.
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(brief excerpts of notes from my research on LYCOPENE, more to follow later)

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